A leader in the field and an experienced teacher, Clark Larsen focuses not on encyclopedic details but on the "big picture," getting students to see and think like anthropologists. Larsen covers all the major aspects of physical anthropology, including genetics, primatology, and the fossil record. He also provides the strongest coverage of bioarchaeology on the market. A native of Nebraska, he received his B. He has worked in North America, Europe, and Asia. Since , he has been a member of the faculty at Ohio State, where he is a Distinguished Professor of Social and Behavioral Sciences.

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Organisms classified in two different biological orders can still belong to the same genus. Before , most Western scientists thought the earth was about 4. Like most of his contemporaries, Charles Darwin believed that physical traits were passed down from each parent and then blended together in the offspring. Genetic drift is most powerful as an evolutionary cause when operating on small populations. Mutation is the only source of new genetic material.

Gene flow increases the number of genetic differences between populations. The combined efforts of Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and Francis Crick helped explain how chromosomes are replicated.

Natural selection works on preexisting variation in a population. Among the first scientists to conceive of evolutionary change was: a. Charles Darwin. Georges Cuvier. Erasmus Darwin. Alfred Wallace. Why is the work of Alfred Russell Wallace considered when discussing the theory of evolution? He was an English naturalist who had arrived at many of the same conclusions as Darwin.

His work is not considered as he was mistakenly credited with the theory of natural selection. Because he was a British dog-breeder who worked on artificial selection experiments.

Wallace was well-known and gathering even more evidence to support evolution than Darwin. The evolutionary synthesis: a. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA : a. While at the gorilla exhibit at the zoo you notice that the sign reads Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

You recall that this is a scientific name and is part of a naming system known as: a. James Hutton is associated with: a. How is the concept of catastrophism different from the concept of uniformitarianism?

Catastrophism is only the result of human-induced changes. Unlike uniformitarianism, catastrophism is the result of a single event. According to Darwin, natural selection operates at the level of: a. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Thomas Malthus. Charles Lyell. Darwin liked the concept of Latin taxonomic classification as it pertained to human groups. Darwin was greatly influenced by research on acquired characteristics. How did Lamarck contribute to the theory of evolution?

He discovered genetic mutation through experiments with pea plants. He proposed the concept of natural selection after his voyage to the Galapagos Islands and his study of finches. The English scientist who independently codiscovered the theory of natural selection was: a. Alfred Russell Wallace.

Carolus Linnaeus. Different versions, or subunits, of the same gene are: a. The only possible source of new genetic material is: a. Recessive alleles will be expressed if they are inherited: a. Parents often produce many offspring. Population size is limited by the food supply. Individuals in populations actively compete for scarce resources. Individuals in populations show little or no variation. DNA was the molecule carrying the genetic code.

Gregor Mendel. Thomas Hunt Morgan. Thomas Huxley. The scientist who coined the name Homo sapiens for human beings and placed them in a higher taxonomic group primates was: a.

Robert Hooke. The individual genotypes in a breeding population, taken as a whole, are the: a. At that time: a. The Human Genome Project is most likely to contribute to an understanding of which disease? The scientist whose work provided the foundation for later understandings of genetics was: a.

John Ray. Robert Hook. Thomas Hunt Morgan: a. Darwin observed that adaptations: a. In your textbook, the smaller frequency of sickle-cell anemia among present day American blacks as compared to West African blacks is attributed to: a. They are found on every continent. There is fossil evidence that they originated in North America. They embody the idea of descent with modification. They did not differ between populations. How do modern-day lemurs of Madagascar demonstrate the concept of adaptive radiation?

They are closely related species that have branched from one species. They are no different than ancient species of lemurs. They have radiated from ancient species of monkeys. They show great cultural flexibility. Gene flow differs from genetic drift because: a. According to this principle, the number of adults in a population remains the same even though parents tend to produce multiple offspring.

Variation exists among members of a population. Individuals having variations that lend advantages for both survival and reproduction increase in relative frequency over time.

What later scientific advance was critical to the subsequent broad acceptance of natural selection as a major force in evolutionary change? Gregor Mendel discovered the principles of inheritance, i. ANS: Scientists working in geology, paleontology, taxonomy and systematics, demography, and what is now evolutionary biology had shown that the earth is old and has changed over its history; fossils represent remains of once living, sometimes extinct, organisms and provide a record of the history of life; life evolves over time; groups of related species provide insight into evolutionary history; and the number of adults in a population tends to remain the same over time.

Provide at least one example in your answer. ANS: The diversity of the various finch populations lent support to the idea that over time natural selection could transform a single common ancestral form into a variety of descendant species. This phenomenon is referred to as adaptive radiation. Each descendant species had adapted to its particular habitat; for example, the ground finch had evolved a more robust beak to accommodate a diet including hard objects such as seeds.

Considering that Linnaeus was not an evolutionist, why is his system still used today by evolutionary biologists? ANS: Linnaeus organized species into ever more inclusive higher-order taxonomic groups based on overall similarity.

So although each species was unique, several of them could be combined into a single genus as a result of their shared traits. Similarly, different genera could be collected into a single, more inclusive family, families combined into orders, etc.


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