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List and describe at least four cultural variations of adolescence around the world. Many female adolescents in the Philippines will sacrifice their own futures by migrating to the city in order to send money to their families. Street youth in Kenya may engage in delinquency or prostitution to survive. In the Middle East, many adolescents are not allowed to interact with the other sex, even in school. Youth in Russia are marrying earlier to legitimize sexual activity.
Discuss major trends in health and well-being for adolescents around the world. Include both positive and negative changes. Adolescent health and well-being have improved in some areas but not in others. On the positive side, fewer adolescents around the world die from infectious diseases and malnutrition than in the past.
However, adolescents continue to engage in a number of health-compromising behaviors, such as illicit drug use and unprotected sex, at levels that place adolescents at risk for serious developmental problems. Extensive increases in the rates of HIV in adolescents have occurred in many sub-Saharan countries. Discuss gender differences in the experiences of male and female adolescents, with respect to education, leisure activities, sexual experiences, family, and peers.
Except in a few areas, males have more educational opportunities than females. In some countries adolescents do not have access to secondary schools and higher education. Many schools do not provide students with the skills that they need to be successful in adult work.
Adolescent females have less freedom to pursue leisure activities than males, and gender differences in sexual expression are widespread. Family life for adolescents can be very different, depending on the culture and country. For example, adolescents who grow up in Arab countries adhere to a strict code of conduct and loyalty. Adolescents who grow up in the United States and other Western countries may experience divorce and stepfamilies; parenting is less authoritarian than in the past.
Some cultures give peers a stronger role in adolescence than others. While peers figure prominently in the lives of adolescents in Western countries, in Arab countries peers have a very restrictive role, especially for girls.
List and briefly define the three determinants of human development. The three determinants of human development are biological processes, cognitive processes, and socioemotional processes. Adolescence is part of the life course and is not an isolated period of development.
Although it has some unique characteristics, what takes place in adolescence is connected with development and experiences in both childhood and adulthood. Briefly describe the three periods of adult development.
The three periods of adult development are early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Early adulthood begins in the late teens or early twenties and lasts through the thirties.
Middle adulthood begins at approximately years of age and ends at some point between 55 and 65 years of age. Late adulthood is the period that extends from 60 or 70 years of age until death. Beth is 22 years old. What developmental period is Beth in, and what are the two main tasks of this period? Beth is in the developmental period of emerging adulthood.
The two main tasks of this period are experimentation and exploration. The five key features that characterize emerging adulthood are identity exploration, especially in love and work; instability; self-focus; feeling in-between; and the age of possibilities, a time when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives.
What are some of the factors that make it difficult to determine when an individual becomes an adult? Determining when an individual becomes an adult is difficult. In the United States, the most widely recognized marker of entry into adulthood is holding a permanent, full-time job. Economic independence is one marker for achieving adult status, but it is a long process in some cultures. List and briefly describe the three types of assets that Jacquelynne Eccles and her colleagues determined are especially important for making a competent transition through adolescence and emerging adulthood.
The three types of assets that Eccles and colleagues determined are necessary for the successful transition through adolescence and emerging adulthood are: intellectual development, psychological and emotional development, and social development. Intellectual development includes such things as knowledge of essential life and vocational skills, critical thinking and reasoning skills, cultural knowledge, and school success.
Psychological and emotional development encompasses such things as good mental health, good emotional regulation and conflict resolution skills, mastery motivation, personal autonomy, personal and social identity, and strong moral character. Social development is related to connectedness, sense of social place, attachment to prosocial institutions, and commitment to civic engagement.
List and define the three major issues in studying adolescent development. The three important issues raised in the study of adolescent development are nature and nurture, continuity and discontinuity, and early and later experiences.
The nature-nurture issue involves the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture. The continuity-discontinuity issues focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative changes continuity or distinct stages discontinuity.
Proponents of the earlyexperience doctrine believe that development will never be optimal if infants are not given warm, nurturing care in the first year of life. Proponents of the later-experience view argue that children and adolescents are malleable throughout development, and that they can compensate for less than optimum early experiences with quality later experiences.
List the four steps in the scientific method. The four steps in the scientific method are: Conceptualize a process or a problem to be solved. Collect data.
Adolescence : an introduction
List and describe at least four cultural variations of adolescence around the world. Many female adolescents in the Philippines will sacrifice their own futures by migrating to the city in order to send money to their families. Street youth in Kenya may engage in delinquency or prostitution to survive. In the Middle East, many adolescents are not allowed to interact with the other sex, even in school. Youth in Russia are marrying earlier to legitimize sexual activity. Discuss major trends in health and well-being for adolescents around the world. Include both positive and negative changes.
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