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Early life[ edit ] Johann Reuchlin was born at Pforzheim in the Black Forest in , where his father was an official of the Dominican monastery. He remained fond of his home town; he constantly calls himself Phorcensis, and in the De Verbo he ascribes to Pforzheim his inclination towards literature. Reuchlin soon left Basel to seek further Greek training with George Hermonymus at Paris, and to learn to write a fair Greek hand that he might support himself by copying manuscripts.
And now he felt that he must choose a profession. Reuchlin was selected for this post, and in February left Stuttgart for Florence and Rome. In he was again in Italy. In his rising reputation had been greatly enhanced by the publication of De Verbo Mirifico. Though Reuchlin had no public office as teacher, he was for much of his life the real centre of all Greek and Hebrew teaching in Germany.
To carry out this work he provided a series of aids for beginners and others. He never published a Greek grammar, but he had one in manuscript for use with his pupils, and also published several little elementary Greek books.
Reuchlin, it may be noted, pronounced Greek as his native teachers had taught him to do, i. This pronunciation, which he defends in De recta Latini Graecique sermonis pronuntiatione , came to be known, in contrast to that used by Desiderius Erasmus , as the Reuchlinian. With the monks he had never been liked; at Stuttgart also his great enemy was the Augustinian Conrad Holzinger.
He came back laden with Hebrew books, and found when he reached Heidelberg that a change of government had opened the way for his return to Stuttgart, where his wife had remained all along. In , or perhaps in , he was given a very high judicial office in the Swabian League , which he held till , when he retired to a small estate near Stuttgart.
Hebrew studies and advocacy[ edit ] For many years Reuchlin had been increasingly absorbed in Hebrew studies , which had for him more than a mere philological interest.
The edition was costly and sold slowly. But for this also Reuchlin found help by printing the Penitential Psalms with grammatical explanations , and other helps followed from time to time. But his Greek studies had interested him in those fantastical and mystical systems of later times with which the Kabbala has no small affinity. Following Pico, he seemed to find in the Kabbala a profound theosophy which might be of the greatest service for the defence of Christianity and the reconciliation of science with the mysteries of faith, a common notion at that time.
He wrote that "The causes which hinder the Jews from becoming Christians are three: first, usury ; second, because they are not compelled to attend Christian churches to hear the sermons ; and third, because they honor the Talmud.
Reuchlin evaded the demand, mainly because the mandate lacked certain formalities, but he could no long remain neutral. In Reuchlin was appointed by Emperor Maximilian to a commission which was convened to review the matter.
His answer is dated from Stuttgart, 6 October ; in it he divides the books into six classes — apart from the Bible which no one proposed to destroy — and, going through each class, he shows that the books openly insulting to Christianity are very few and viewed as worthless by most Jews themselves, while the others are either works necessary to the Jewish worship, which was licensed by papal as well as imperial law, or contain matter of value and scholarly interest which ought not to be sacrificed because they are connected with another faith than that of the Christians.
He proposed that the emperor should decree that for ten years there should be two Hebrew chairs at every German university, for which the Jews should furnish books. Pfefferkorn circulated at the Frankfurt Fair of a gross libel Handspiegel wider und gegen die Juden declaring that Reuchlin had been bribed. Reuchlin defended himself in a pamphlet titled Augenspiegel , which the theologians at the University of Cologne attempted to suppress.
On 7 October they, along with the inquisitor Jacob van Hoogstraaten , obtained an imperial order confiscating the Augenspiegel. In Reuchlin was summoned before a court of the inquisition. He was willing to receive corrections in theology, which was not his subject, but he could not unsay what he had said; and as his enemies tried to press him into a corner he met them with open defiance in a Defensio contra Calumniatores The universities were now appealed to for opinions, and were all against Reuchlin.
Even Paris August condemned the Augenspiegel, and called on Reuchlin to recant. Meantime a formal process had begun at Mainz before the grand inquisitor. But Reuchlin managed to have the jurisdiction changed to the episcopal court of Speyer. The Reuchlin affair caused a wide rift in the church and eventually the case came before the papal court in Rome.
Judgment was not finally given till July ; and then, though the decision was really for Reuchlin, the trial was simply quashed. The result had cost Reuchlin years of trouble and no small part of his modest fortune, but it was worth the sacrifice. For far above the direct importance of the issue was the great stirring of public opinion which had gone forward.
And while the obscurantists escaped easily at Rome, with only a half condemnation, they received a crushing blow in Germany. In , a commission met in Frankfurt to investigate the case. It condemned Hoogstraaten. But the final decision of Rome did not indemnify Reuchlin.
The contest ended, however; public interest had grown cold, absorbed entirely by the Lutheran question, and Reuchlin had no reason to fear new attacks. In he was appointed professor of Hebrew and Greek at Wittenberg, but instead sent his nephew Melanchthon. In , Stuttgart was visited by famine, civil war and pestilence.
From November of this year to the spring of , the veteran statesman sought refuge in the University of Ingolstadt where he received an appointment as professor from William of Bavaria. It was 41 years since at Poitiers he had last spoken from a public chair; but at 65 he retained his gift of teaching, and hundreds of scholars crowded round him. But in the spring he found it necessary to visit the baths of Liebenzell, and there contracted jaundice , of which he died, leaving in the history of the new learning a name only second to that of his younger contemporary Erasmus.
Reuchlin died in Stuttgart, and is buried at St. Leonhard church.
JOHANN REUCHLIN PDF
Naast Hendrik Bolhuis en Wessel van der Brugge was hij een van de drie Nederlandse opvarenden aan boord van de RMS Titanic , die op 15 april zonk na een aanvaring met een ijsberg. Reuchlin overleefde net als zijn twee landgenoten deze ramp niet. Hij volgde in de voetsporen van zijn vader en was eerst bureauchef van het bedrijf, alvorens zelf directeur te worden. In trouwde hij met Agatha Maria Elink Schuurman.
Kazragore In the Curia suppressed his writings against Pfefferkorn. Gentile defender of Jewish scholarship. Reucglin he made his third Italian trip. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Johannes Reuchlin German humanist To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.