HISTORI ISLAME PDF

Flyby is upon us! December 13, Length: Photos provided and hosted by Panoramio. Videos provided by Youtube are under the copyright of their owners. Histiri cities in the vicinity These are smaller butyet relevant locations related to this place.

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Sources Islam is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity, with about 1. Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world. Muslims are monotheistic and worship one, all-knowing God, who in Arabic is known as Allah. Followers of Islam aim to live a life of complete submission to Allah.

Muslims contend that Muhammad was the final prophet. Mosques are places where Muslims worship. The Quran or Koran is the major holy text of Islam. The Hadith is another important book. Muslims also revere some material found in the Judeo-Christian Bible. Followers worship Allah by praying and reciting the Quran. They believe there will be a day of judgment, and life after death.

Muslims believe he was the final prophet sent by God to reveal their faith to mankind. According to Islamic texts and tradition, an angel named Gabriel visited Muhammad in A. The angel ordered Muhammad to recite the words of Allah.

Muslims believe that Muhammad continued to receive revelations from Allah throughout the rest of his life. Starting in about , Muhammad began preaching throughout Mecca the messages he received. He taught that there was no other God but Allah and that Muslims should devote their lives to this God.

Hijra In , Muhammad traveled from Mecca to Medina with his supporters. This journey became known as the Hijra also spelled Hegira or Hijrah , and marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.

Some seven years later, Muhammad and his many followers returned to Mecca and conquered the region. He continued to preach until his death in A series of leaders, known as caliphs, became successors to Muhammad. This system of leadership, which was run by a Muslim ruler, became known as a caliphate. Abu Bakr died about two years after he was elected and was succeeded in by Caliph Umar, another father-in-law of Muhammad. Islam also spread throughout areas in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

The caliphate system lasted for centuries and eventually evolved into the Ottoman Empire , which controlled large regions in the Middle East from about until , when World War I ended the Ottoman reign.

Sunnis and Shiites When Muhammad died, there was debate over who should replace him as leader. This led to a schism in Islam, and two major sects emerged: the Sunnis and the Shiites. Sunnis make up nearly 90 percent of Muslims worldwide. They accept that the first four caliphs were the true successors to Muhammad.

Shiite Muslims believe that only the caliph Ali and his descendants are the real successors to Muhammad. They deny the legitimacy of the first three caliphs. Some of these include: Wahhabi: This Sunni sect, made up of members of the Tameem tribe in Saudi Arabia, was founded in the 18th century. Followers observe an extremely strict interpretation of Islam that was taught by Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab. Alawite: This Shiite form of Islam is prevalent in Syria.

Followers hold similar beliefs about the caliph Ali but also observe some Christian and Zoroastrian holidays. Kharijites: This sect broke from the Shiites after disagreeing over how to select a new leader. They are known for radical fundamentalism, and today are called Ibadis. Quran The Quran. It contains some basic information that is found in the Hebrew Bible as well as revelations that were given to Muhammad.

The text is considered the sacred word of God and supercedes any previous writings. Muhammad himself was never taught to read or write. The book is written with Allah as the first person, speaking through Gabriel to Muhammad. It contains chapters, which are called surahs.

The calendar began in the year A. The Islamic calendar indicates the proper days of Islamic holidays and celebrations, including the period of fasting and prayer known as Ramadan , which occurs during the ninth month of the calendar. Islam Symbols As in many religions, there is no single image or symbol of Islam that is universally accepted by all Muslims worldwide.

The crescent moon and star has been adopted in some predominantly Muslim countries as a symbol of Islam, though the crescent moon and star image is believed to pre-date Islam and was originally a symbol of the Ottoman Empire.

In some other applications, such as the International Red Cross and Red Crescent humanitarian aid movement, a red crescent indicates that followers of Islam are respected and treated accordingly. Five Pillars of Islam Muslims follow five basic pillars that are essential to their faith. This faith-based code of conduct directs Muslims on how they should live in nearly every aspect of their lives.

Sharia law requires men and women to dress modestly. It also outlines marriage guidelines and other moral principles for Muslims. If crimes are committed, Sharia law is known for its harsh punishments.

Adultery can carry the penalty of death by stoning. However, many Muslims do not support such extreme measures. Mosques today follow some of the same principles he established in A. A mihrab is a decorative feature or niche in the mosque that indicates the direction to Mecca, and therefore the direction to face during prayer.

Men and women pray separately, and Muslims may visit a mosque five times a day for each of the prayer sessions. In addition to hosting prayers, mosques often function as public gathering places and social centers.

Eid al-Fitr: marks the end of Ramadan—the Islamic holy month of fasting. Muslims also celebrate other holidays, such as the Islamic New Year and the birth of Muhammad. While some Muslims use their faith to justify terrorism, the vast majority do not. In fact, Muslims are frequently victims of violence themselves. Recent surveys have found that in countries with high Muslim populations, the majority of Muslims have overwhelmingly negative views of terrorist groups like ISIS.

While Muslims aim to clear up misconceptions about their faith, the religion continues to spread rapidly. Experts predict Islam will surpass Christianity as the largest religion by the end of the century. What is Sharia Law and How is it Applied? Pew Research Center. The Islamic Calendar: TimeandDate.

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Category : Histori islame

Sources Islam is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity, with about 1. Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world. Muslims are monotheistic and worship one, all-knowing God, who in Arabic is known as Allah. Followers of Islam aim to live a life of complete submission to Allah. Muslims contend that Muhammad was the final prophet.

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