ERIC STOKES THE ENGLISH UTILITARIANS AND INDIA PDF

The detailed treatment of the social origins of the revolt would have extended to all regions where mutiny was complemented by civil rebellion in - Stokes however had not begun to write his conclusion at the time of his death in Above this clustered a whole range of social and economic forces which determined the propensity to revolt and it was the specific decisions of British officers and Indian leaders which helped translate these propensities into historical action. His own view of political and social priorities derived not from historical theory but from a notion of natural law and from revealed religion. The book chapters discuss the Military dimension of British strategy and tactics, as well of Sepoy Rebels, the Peasant World and British Administration.

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W Kaye, Life of Metcalfe, vol i, p S8. Honor, gratitude, and complacent self-love have won him, and kept him on the non-popular side of one great public question — that between the Company and England. The monopoly of the legal profession, which Bentham regarded as the origin of the expense and delay of English justice, would be broken; every man would be his own lawyer, just as the more extreme Evangelicals hoped that, armed with the Bible, every man would be his own priest.

Warren Hastings attempted to resist its implications. Englieh the guiding principles are clear. The healing principle which should close the dangerous gulf was eruc of assimilation.

Gk vernment conducted from the office, rather than from the tent and the saddle, necessarily proceeded by forms and precedents ; and when its functions were kept confined to the operation of courts of justice and to the mere realization of erix revenue, its criterion of success was similarly limited to superficialities — to the speed with which judicial business was dispatched, and the stomes and promptitude of revenue payments.

Both are, in the physical sense, disgustingly unclean in their persons and their houses. Substantially it represents the permanent Liberal attitude to India, which survived intact to the end of British rule, which, despite hesitations, was ready with an answer for Indian nationalism, and which has finally triumphed in our own time.

Similarly, if an appeal judge entirely re-heard a case, again taking evidence of facts, he would not be conducting a proper appeal, which enylish to ensure that the law was correctly applied to certain facts, but would be repeating the original trial. Yet their very presence betokened a change in the character of government, however long its effects might utilktarians delayed.

To obtain any success it had not merely to provide practical ideas for the solution of practical issues, but it had to link itself with some larger tendency. In its largest sense their solution was that of education. In England rent property was in private hands, and the practical and political difficulties in the way of meeting the financial needs of the State out of rent were insuperable. That it did not do so entirely was due to the success of utili- tarianism in showing how the originally conservative system uttilitarians Munro might be transformed into a most powerful instrument for change.

This was rather the determination to introduce private property rights in land and upljold them through a Western type of law system. The English Utilitarians and India The Industrial Revolution and the reversal it brought about in the economic rela- tion of India with Britain were the primary phenomena. It has been alledged above, that most of the Indian judges point to education as the only power from the operation of which a fevourable change can be expected in the moral character of the people; on this subject however, if Sir Henry Strachey be excepted, their views neglish superficial.

We have repeatedly expressed to you a very different sentiment. The prepress of education so as to produce any very perceptible effect would, he thought, be exceed- ingly slow, and any very general diffusion of the English language among the natives of India was to be despaired of.

The Calcutta mercantile community had its own narrower, more selfish standpoint, but substantially it swelled the great tide of liberalism engulfing the English mind in the eighteen- thirties. None of them, not even Munro, the oldest of them, was hostile to reform; indeed they all prided themselves on their liberal opinion. The Reform of the Superior Government 3. These convictions were con- tained m a cast of mind which was almost Hebraic.

Although he was impressed with the federalism of the United States, it was more natural for him to think in terms of a central controlling mind; and both he and his immediate disciples looked to the example of the French centralized bureaucracy.

It teh what in a more intellectualized political tradition would be called a rival political philosophy. Furthermore, for efficient control within these units it was necessary to establish a firm chain of command and subordination.

Free trade with cheap and efficient government, de- signed to affect the rapid modernization of India, were ideals shared by all reformers. They have already made the science of political economy — a science of vast importance to the welfare of nations — an object of disgust to the majority of the community. The English Utilitarians And India In fact, he declared, the British system of public law, administered by an independent judiciary, was the best guarantee of toleration and protection for those interests to which the great mass of the people were truly attached.

In this way unity of design was to be harmonized with the advantages of division of labour. Want to Read saving…. The Supreme Courts, established in the Presidency towns and presided over by judges appointed directly by the Crown, were re- garded by the English inhabitants as the shield and defence of their rights and liberties against the despotic government of the Company. A few pages of history give more insight into the human mind, in a more agreeable manner, than all the metaphysical volumes that ever were pub- lished.

He acknowledged to the Parlia- mentary Committee that the orders of the Home Authorities had usually to be cast in the form of a statement of principles or of a retrospective survey of past events.

To elevate the character of any people, the important thing was to protect them. As such it was held by Ricardo and James Mill to be a particularly suitable source of taxation, because a tax on rent in no way retarded economic progress.

Consequently, the British as sovereigns held in their hands the most powerful agency affecting the com- position of Indian society. With a wealth of quotation from Hindu writings and from the observations of European travellers. TOP Related Posts.

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