The concept of facial coding is simple in theory, if somewhat more difficult in practice: there are a finite group of facial expressions, and each signifies some emotional state. The reactions revealed by analyzing facial expressions are often at odds with what the same individuals say when they describe their reaction verbally. Much of the original work in the field of facial coding has been done by Paul Ekman, of the University of California at San Francisco. He also notes that happiness is demonstrated by true smiles and social smiles — the latter involve only the mouth and may indicate that the subject is lying. Impact is the intensity of the emotion s exhibited, while Appeal is a measure of the positive or negative aspect of the emotion. In some cases, eye tracking data may be used to determine what portion of an ad is causing the emotional response.
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Emotion drives reason more than reason drives emotion. Feelings happen before thought, and they happen with great speed. Conscious thought is only a small portion of mental activity. Visual imagery and other non — verbal forms of communication predominate. We perceive matters in ways that emotionally protect our habits and biases.
What is known as the original brain, supports our senses. In humans, this part of the brain is notable for engaging in pattern matching, automatically benchmarking current experience against previous encounters. This ability allows us to orient and gauge levels of safety and comfort. The second part of the brain, the limbic system, is our emotional center and evolved with the first mammals.
It turns sensory perceptions into emotional and physical responses. It also interfaces with the newest brain, the rational brain, which forms the third part of the modern human brain. Thus, one could say that the limbic system serves as our Grand Integrator, linking the sensory, emotional and rational parts of the brain.
Its key activity is to assign gut — level value to the situations we encounter. The neocortex was the last part of the brain to develop.
As the rational part, it often gets called the mind. Its frontal lobes are the executive center of the brain, where complex data is processed. Social mammals evolved this part of the brain. The size of the neocortex is directly proportional to the size of the group they live in because having to track more relationships requires more brain power Baker, Greenberg and Hemingway, Given our complex societal ties, humans have the largest neocortex on the planet.
The essential difference between emotion and reason is that emotion leads to action while reason leads to conclusions. Born from observations of human behavior instead of abstract theory, behavioral economics involves a handful of essential concepts.
For the purposes of simplifying the discussion here, those concepts have been put into one of two realms: either categorization or loss aversion. Framing: making a choice more attractive by deliberately comparing it with inferior options.
Prospect theory: judging pleasure based on a change in condition rather than on how happy we are. Anchoring: evaluating new information strictly in terms of what our baseline of knowledge happens to be. Recency: giving undue weight to recent experiences. Familiarity: having a bias towards the status quo. New — risk premium: inflating the cost of accepting new risks while casually discounting familiar risks.
Fear of regret: not making a decision out of fear, so as to avoid making a mistake. Decision paralysis: failing to make a decision involving lots of choices for fear of making the wrong one. When Ekman and Friesen created their facial coding system , they relied on two facts that make it a natural and highly effective tool. The first is that human beings have more facial muscles than any other species on the planet. This fact alone makes analyzing the face a gold mine of data.
Second, the face is the only place on the body where our muscles attach directly to the skin. These are the three universal qualities that characterize emotions: a feeling component — physical sensations, including chemical changes in the brain; a thinking component — conscious or intuitive appraisal; an action component — expressive reactions like smiles or scowls , as well as coping behaviors fight or flight.
Sometimes an optional sensory component exists: a sensory component — sights, sounds, etcetera, which intrude and serve to trigger the emotional response. There are seven primary emotions. One emotion is essentially neutral: surprise.
Five are negative: fear, anger, sadness, disgust and contempt. The other is positive: happiness. Moreover, happiness can be divided based on two different kinds of smiles, true smiles and social smiles.
When the primary emotions get combined as they usually are in real life , a much richer palette of emotional response emerges. Surprise — Our ability to express surprise appears at birth. Unlike the other six core emotions, surprise is neither inherently positive nor inherently negative.
Its valence depends on what we perceive after the surprise has passed. Eyes go big. Eyebrows fly high. Mouth falls open. Fear — This is the single most important emotion.
The ability to express fear appears about five to nine months after birth. Fear opens the face, which will blanch and, in extreme cases, tremble. Eyes widen. Chin pulls wider. Lips stretch back horizontally. Jaw drops open. Anger — The ability to show anger appears three to seven months after birth. The angry face contracts — like a snake coiling to strike — and its appearance becomes more concentrated and intense.
Eyes narrow into snake — eyes. Lips tighten or form a funnel. Sadness appears between birth and three months. Generally speaking, sadness makes the face sag, giving a person a long face frown. Eyebrows drop, but inner corners rise slightly.
Corners of eyes crease in a wince. The trench running between the corners of the nostrils and the upper mouth corners deepens. Lip corners sag or form an upside — down smile. Disgust — Is an adverse reaction shown when we attempt to distance ourselves from an offensive source.
Disgust appears between birth and three months. It involves a lifting up and away, like a gag reflex, as we try to protect ourselves from poison. Upper lip rises, sometimes as part of an upside — down smile. Lower lip pulls down and away. Contempt — Is less physical and more attitudinal — one might say moral — in orientation than disgust.
The skin beyond the lip corners pulls inward towards the lip corners, tightening and narrowing the lip corners. Pulls the skin below the lip corners up towards those corners, flattening and stretching the chin bass skin. The upper eyelid slightly droops and skin under the eye may gather upward, deepening the lower eyelid furrow. The corners of the mouth move up and out, and the cheeks lift upwards.
With a social smile: The face becomes rounder as the corners of the mouth move up and out and the cheeks lift upwards. The activity around the eyes that would cause them to twinkle or gleam, thereby indicating the presence of a true smile, is missing.
A great mismatch exists between the way consumers experience and think about their world and the methods marketers use to collect this information. To help them achieve true emotional buy — in: Reflected beliefs Belonging Telling a story A beliefs strategy means consumers no longer think about which brand to buy. CRM provides data without any intuitive feeling as to what it all conveys.
Given the strength of both religious and secular beliefs, never defame them. Figure out which values are for real and which are less imperative. Unfortunately, all too often, companies choose the what their products, service, etcetera over the who their customers. As company grows in scale, it tends to become increasingly distracted by internal dynamics, losing sight of customers in the process.
Customers, however, have much bigger stories to tell. Executives who understand that an emotional connection is central to the creation of a viable relationship will want to get a bigger perspective.
As a mixture of happiness and anger, pride has an edge to it. Because brands are social in nature, we rely on them to reinforce our sense of membership in a tribe. In other words, great brands leverage our innate impulse to belong to an inner circle. Great brands make it possible for us to feel unique. Recurring emotions form the basis for traits, which in turn create personality.
Nothing in business is less tangible, and therefore more purely emotional, than branding. Reward customers for their loyalty by mirroring the beliefs that frame their top — down processing. Figure out what values emotionally matter most to the target market and make sure your brand can truly deliver on representing them. Remember that a brand is social in nature because we rely on it to reinforce our status as members of the tribe with which we identify.
The community we join serves as a bridge to adoption by giving us the extra confidence to declare the brand our choice. Tell a story that involves a vibrant brand personality whose enduring traits resonate in harmony with the key associations by which consumers know and accept the brand with enthusiasm. The basis of great design is to be both awe — inspiring and emotionally relevant. Advertising needs to be emotionally absorbing.
Emotionomics: Leveraging Emotions for Business Success
Emotion drives reason more than reason drives emotion. Feelings happen before thought, and they happen with great speed. Conscious thought is only a small portion of mental activity. Visual imagery and other non — verbal forms of communication predominate.
Dan Hill: Emotionomics; Leveraging Emotions for Business Success
The author of the book referred this gap as say-feel gap. In term of relationship between sales person customer, or employer employees, if you want to close the gap, the author recommends not to just listen to their answer, but to use facial coding; means, reading facial muscles of the target person. He described seven types of core emotions and more of secondary emotions. It The topic of this book is about how your face expresses what you think, which often different than what you say. In term of relationship between sales person — customer, or employer — employees, if you want to close the gap, the author recommends not to just listen to their answer, but to use facial coding; means, reading facial muscles of the target person.