Teotihuacn significa lugar donde los dioses han nacido, esto refleja una creencia que tena la cultura Azteca, que habla sobre que los dioses crearon todo universo en este sitio. A Teotihuacn se le considera como el centro religioso ms importante en Mesoamrica, y se ubica en lo que actualmente es el estado de Hidalgo. El origen del nombre Teotihuacn se le debe a la cultura azteca, que fue quien la descubri en el ao de d. A pesar de que sus orgenes y el de sus primeros habitantes se sabe que llego a tener una superficie de casi 21 km 2 y que albergo a una poblacin de mil a mil habitantes, incluso hay quienes creen que la decadencia y la migracin de los habitantes de Teotihuacn, se debi a la sobrepoblacin y la escasez de recursos naturales. Otras teoras sobre la cada de Teotihuacn se refieren a un caos poltico debido a una religin interna y cambios climticos que desembocaron en este descenso hasta su des habitacin.
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Learn how and when to remove this template message The first human establishment in the area dates back to BC, and until BC there were scattered small villages on the site of the future city of Teotihuacan. It is estimated that the total population of the Teotihuacan Valley during this time was approximately 6, inhabitants. Period I occurred between - 1 BC and marks the genesis of a real city. During this period, Teotihuacan began to grow into a city as farmers working on the hillside of the Teotihuacan Valley began to move down into the valley, coalescing around the abundant springs of Teotihuacan.
During this era Teotihuacan exhibited explosive growth that caused it to be the largest metropolis in Mesoamerica. Factors influencing this growth include the destruction of other settlements due to volcanic eruptions and the economic pull of the expanding city. During this period, the construction of some of the most well known sites of Teotihuacan, the Pyramids of the Sun and Moon, were completed.
Its population was estimated at , inhabitants, or more, and the city was among the largest cities of the ancient world, containing 2, buildings within an area of 18 square kilometers. Typical artistic artifacts of this period were funeral masks, crafted mainly from green stone and covered with mosaics of turquoise, shell or obsidian. These masks were highly uniform in nature. Period IV describes the time period between AD and It marks the end of Teotihuacan as a major power in Mesoamerica.
Origins and foundation[ edit ] Teotihuacan and other important Classic Era settlements The early history of Teotihuacan is quite mysterious and the origin of its founders is uncertain. Around BCE, people of the central and southeastern area of Mesoamerica began to gather into larger settlements. For many years, archaeologists believed it was built by the Toltec.
This belief was based on colonial period texts, such as the Florentine Codex , which attributed the site to the Toltecs. However, the Nahuatl word "Toltec" generally means "craftsman of the highest level" and may not always refer to the Toltec civilization centered at Tula, Hidalgo. In the Late Formative era, a number of urban centers arose in central Mexico. The most prominent of these appears to have been Cuicuilco , on the southern shore of Lake Texcoco.
Scholars have speculated that the eruption of the Xitle volcano may have prompted a mass emigration out of the central valley and into the Teotihuacan valley.
These settlers may have founded or accelerated the growth of Teotihuacan. There is evidence that at least some of the people living in Teotihuacan immigrated from those areas influenced by the Teotihuacano civilization, including the Zapotec , Mixtec , and Maya peoples. The builders of Teotihuacan took advantage of the geography in the Basin of Mexico. From the swampy ground, they constructed raised beds, called chinampas, creating high agricultural productivity despite old methods of cultivation.
The earliest buildings at Teotihuacan date to about BCE. The largest pyramid, the Pyramid of the Sun , was completed by CE. This was not the Teotihuacan state; it was a group of the Feathered-Serpent people, thrown out from the city. The Feathered-Serpent Pyramid was burnt, all the sculptures were torn from the temple, and another platform was built to efface the facade The Dynasty went on to have sixteen rulers. Zenith[ edit ] The city reached its peak in CE, when it was the center of a powerful culture whose influence extended through much of the Mesoamerican region.
Notably absent from the city are fortifications and military structures. View of the Pyramid of the Moon from the Pyramid of the Sun The nature of political and cultural interactions between Teotihuacan and the centers of the Maya region as well as elsewhere in Mesoamerica has been a long-standing and significant area for debate. Substantial exchange and interaction occurred over the centuries from the Terminal Preclassic to the Mid-Classic period.
Some believe that it had direct and militaristic dominance; others that adoption of "foreign" traits was part of a selective, conscious, and bi-directional cultural diffusion. New discoveries have suggested that Teotihuacan was not much different in its interactions with other centers from the later empires, such as the Toltec and Aztec.
Platform along the Avenue of the Dead showing the talud-tablero architectural style Restored portion of Teotihucan architecture showing the typical Mesoamerican use of red paint complemented on gold and jade decoration upon marble and granite. The talud-tablero style disseminated through Mesoamerica generally from the end of the Preclassic period, and not specifically, or solely, via Teotihuacano influence. It is unclear how or from where the style spread into the Maya region.
During the zenith main structures of the site, including the pyramids, were painted in dark-red maroon to Burgundy colors only small spots remain now and were a very impressionable view. Teotihuacan is known for producing a great number of obsidian artifacts. No ancient Teotihuacano non- ideographic texts are known to exist or known to have existed.
Inscriptions from Maya cities show that Teotihuacan nobility traveled to, and perhaps conquered, local rulers as far away as Honduras. Maya inscriptions note an individual nicknamed by scholars as " Spearthrower Owl ", apparently ruler of Teotihuacan, who reigned for over 60 years and installed his relatives as rulers of Tikal and Uaxactun in Guatemala. The creation of murals, perhaps tens of thousands of murals, reached its height between and The artistry of the painters was unrivaled in Mesoamerica and has been compared with that of painters in Renaissance Florence, Italy.
Cultura teotihuacana: resumen breve
ORGANIZACIÓN POLÍTICA TEOTIHUACANA » Una estructura teocrática