Description An excellent on-line database with detailed information on over 3, species of useful plants of Africa. The wood is heavy, strong and hard, it has a slight pleasant fragrance when freshly cut. The heartwood is cream-coloured to golden yellow, darkening to brown with age; it is not clearly demarcated from the slightly paler sapwood. The grain is usually interlocked or wavy, texture fine and even.
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Jayaraj P. Traditionally different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds, cuts, burns and skin diseases. Its pharmacognostic data for authentication of the leaf crude drug is available, but it is incomplete, hence, in the present study detailed macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies of leaf are undertaken.
Powder microscopy revealed the presence of xylem vessels with spiral and reticulate thickenings, phloem fibers, raphide crystals and unicellular trichomes. Anatomical studies showed the presence of raphide crystals, collateral vascular bundle, resin ducts and anomocytic stomata. The qualitative chemical tests of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water extracts of leaf indicated the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, amino acids, phenolic compounds and tannins.
A paste of the Chloroxylon swietenia DC. It is a moderate sized and inhabitants of Bastar District Madhya deciduous tree of about m in height and Pradesh . The decoction of the leaves is 1. The tree is abrasions of the skin and the smoke from popularly known as Yellow wood, East burning leaves is used to drive ticks out of Indian satin wood, Ceylon satin wood and is stables .
Leaves have remarkable mosquito native to India and Sri Lanka [2, 3]. Various parts of this tree has long been used in the indigenous system of medicine such Owing to its heavy demand not only for as the bark is used as an astringent , leaves medicinal use, but also for timber purpose, are applied to worm infested wound of the tree now has become endangered.
The animals, fungal infection of skin and for the tree has been cited under Red List category www. Powder Regional Workshop Conservation and microscopic analysis was carried out with Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet small amount of leaf powder, which was Nam, August [8, 9]. The Although the earlier work on leaf of slides are mounted in the glycerin and are Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Chloroxylon swietenia DC. A voucher number of subsidiary cells [14, 15, 17].
Stomatal specimen has been deposited in the P. After epidermis of leaf. Stomatal index is the collection the fresh leaves of the plant were percentage which the number of stomata preserved in F. A solution for the forms to the total number of epidermal cells, subsequent study.
Drying of plant material: After Physicochemical Evaluation: Various authentication, the leaves were dried at room physicochemical parameters such as ash temperature until they were free from the values total ash, water soluble ash and acid- moisture and then powdered with a insoluble ash and extractive values water, mechanical grinder.
The powder was passed alcohol and ether soluble extractives were through sieve and stored in an air tight determined as per standard procedures [18, 19, 20] container for further studies. Pharmacognosy was carried out using standard methodology [11, 12, 13, 14]. Fluorescence analysis: The fluorescence behavior of the leaf powder in the visible Macroscopic and microscopic studies: The light and ultraviolet light were carried out by macroscopy and microscopy of the leaf are using leaf powder and freshly prepared studied according to the methods [14, 15, 16].
A small quantity of dried For microscopic studies, free hand sections and finely powdered leaf were placed on of leaf were taken and stained with safranine clean microscopic slide and added drops O as per the procedure . Powder of the freshly prepared reagent solutions www. The colors cuticle. The epidermis is covered by simple observed by application of different unicellular trichomes. The ground tissue chemical reagents in different radiations cortex is homogenous, parenchymatous, were recorded [21, 22, 23].
The cells are Preliminary phytochemical screening: lignified and consist of resin duct. After the Dried, coarsely powdered leaves were ground tissue cortex is the layers of extracted successively with petroleum ether, compactly arranged thick walled cells, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water which are sclerenchymatous in nature. The using Soxhlet apparatus. All the extracts entire vascular system and the pith are were tested for the presence of surrounded by this sclerenchymatous sheath.
Preliminary The vascular bundle is collateral. Here phytochemical tests for various extracts xylem and phloem remain side by side were carried out according to the standard arranged on the same radius, phloem on the procedures [24, 25, 26]. Inner to this vascular system is the pith, which is made Macroscopic studies up of compactly arranged parenchymatous Leaf : Pinnately compound. Many cells in this region are also Leaf size: cm in length and 3. Leaves : Alternate.
Anatomy of leaf let-midrib: The cross Leaflets size: 1. Leaflet margin : Entire. Upper epidermis is continuous with broad Leaflet lamina : Unequal-sided. But the Color :Dark green adaxially and light lower epidermal cells are discontinuous due green abaxially Fig The adaxial region of the leaf is composed of two layers Organoleptic characters of leaf powder of elongated columnar cells known as Color Odour Taste Touch palisade parenchyma.
These cells remain Light Characteristic Tasteless Fibrous, arranged more or less at right angles to the green smooth upper epidermis. The abaxial region of the leaf is composed of loosely arranged Microscopic studies isodiametric cells known as spongy parenchyma. The vascular strand is single, Anatomy of leaf petiole: In the cross broadly shaped, collateral and closed. It section, the leaf peliole is more or less consists of radial files of thick walled triangular in shape. The adaxial side is angular xylem elements lying on the upper concave and the abaxial part is side and the phloem on the lower side.
Some hemispherical. It is surrounded by single of xylem vessels showed presence of layered epidermis, which is thin and raphide crystals. Phloem consists of thick continuous and is made up of small walled darkly staining elements forming a www. Vascular bundle is surrounded by Fluorescence analysis: The fluorescence parenchymatous cells called bundle sheath characteristics of leaf powder with different Fig-5A.
Anatomy of leaf let-lamina: Leaf let-lamina is bifacial and mesomorphic, it consists of Preliminary phytochemical screening: broad adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers.
Preliminary phytochemical screening of the The mesophyll tissue is differentiated into Chloroxylon swietenia DC. Resin ducts are present at palisade mesophyll zone. The abaxial epidermis is Phytochemical test shows the presence of discontinuous and stomatiferous Fig- 5B.
Phenolic compounds and tannins were observed in Stomatal type, number and index: Petroleum Ether, Acetone, ethanol and water Anomocytic type of stomata are present only Extract. Alkaloids observed only in on lower epidermis, where as stomata are chloroform extract.
Glycosides observed absent on upper epidermis. The stomata only in petroleum ether. Flavonoids were surrounded by subsidiary cells and these observed in ethanol extract and amino acids subsidiary cells are in no way differing from in water extract, whereas steroids were epidermal cells Fig Stomatal number of absent in all the extracts.
It also provides walls Fig-6C , upper epidermal cells in pharmacognostic data of Chloroxylon surface view appear hexagonal to polygonal swietenia DC. Department extractive values and ash values were of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad measured and shown in Table Standard Deviation. Cook T. The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay.
Culcutta; Botanical Survey of India: , pp. Journal of Pharmacognosy, ; 3 2 : Indian medicinal plants. Sci, ; 93 4 : World J. Biotechnol, ; Parotta AJ. Healing plants of Peninsular India. Chem, ; Chloroxylon swietenia. In: IUCN Version International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, ; 6 3 ; Mandeep S, Sharma E. Internatoinal Journal of Biological and Pharmaceutical Research, ; 4 9 : Pharma Innovation, ; J Pharmacognosy Phytother, ; 2 5 : Khandelwal KR.
Practical Pharmacognosy. Evans WC, Trease and Evans. London; WB Saunders Ltd: , pp. Khasim SM. Botanical Microtechniques: Principle and Practice. New Delhi; Capital Publishing Company: , pp. Metcalfe CR, Chalk L. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons Vols. Oxford; Clarendon Press: Indian herbal pharmacopoeia.
Revised ed. WHO monographs of selected medicinal plants. Geneva; World Health Organisation:
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