ARINC activities include operation of land radio stations, the allocation and assignment of frequencies and the exchange of technical information. AEEC formulates standards for electronic equipment and systems for airlines. Indicate new equipment requirements to the manufacturers of electronic equipment based upon the considered opinion of the airline technical experts. Influence new equipment designs in order to achieve the maximum possible standardisation of those physical and electrical characteristics which affect equipment interchangeability. The requirement for on-board navigation data bases was identified in the s with the development of the first Flight Management Systems FMS. With the implementation of the area navigation methods, and the capability to use inputs from different sensors, the requirement to have access to a sophisticated on-board navigation data base became mandatory TGL
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ARINC activities include operation of land radio stations, the allocation and assignment of frequencies and the exchange of technical information. AEEC formulates standards for electronic equipment and systems for airlines. Indicate new equipment requirements to the manufacturers of electronic equipment based upon the considered opinion of the airline technical experts.
Influence new equipment designs in order to achieve the maximum possible standardisation of those physical and electrical characteristics which affect equipment interchangeability. The requirement for on-board navigation data bases was identified in the s with the development of the first Flight Management Systems FMS. With the implementation of the area navigation methods, and the capability to use inputs from different sensors, the requirement to have access to a sophisticated on-board navigation data base became mandatory TGL ARINC has been continuously improved and adjusted over the years in order to accommodate new navigational procedures, capabilities, standards and technical characteristics.
The ARINC document enables data base suppliers, avionics systems and other users of the data bases to fly and flight plan procedures as prescribed by designers. The document is not meant to be a prescriptive document for procedure design experts. Assemble a data bank. Produce electronic media meeting the operational requirements of the next link in the data chain avionics manufacturer, airlines, ATC. Merge the data with the operational software of airborne navigation computers.
Produce electronic media containing the merged data for use on individual aircraft. Participants in the data processing chain are public organisations, States, avionics manufacturers, datahouses and various end-users. Any participant in the data chain may originate, transmit, assemble, prepare or integrate aeronautical data. Individual navigation systems require different formats for navigation reference data.
The available storage in many avionics systems prevents all procedures or data elements from being loaded into the airborne database. Airlines are cost driven and hence do not upgrade equipment unless there is a clear benefit.
The system life cycle of most avionics equipment is 15 to 20 years. Over the years, different earth models, geodesic calculations and uses of variables such as magnetic variation have been used. Differences in avionics systems need to be considered during the processing of aeronautical data.
As a result, databases from different datahouses may not always be consistent. An aeronautical database is a collection of data that is arranged for ease of electronic storage and retrieval in a system that supports airborne or ground based aeronautical applications.
The database structure, sorting rules and the relationships between data elements, laid down in ARINC standard are indispensable prerequisites for the function of such systems. Each primary record, completed by additional primary and continuation records, covers all required data elements.
Basic principles of databases is that information need to be entered, corrected, changed or deleted only once. On-board RNAV systems have access to pre-programmed routes, the airspaces concerned, the navaids serving this airspace, the airports along the route including departure and destination airports.
The system identifies the next waypoint, calculates the aircraft position and provides inputs to the flight control systems. Region Code? Fix Identifier? Inbound Course? Turn Direction? Leg Length? Leg Time? Holding Speed? Min Altitude? Max Altitude? Longest Runway? Magnetic Variation? Airport Elevation? Speed Limit? Airport Name? Datum Code etc. Airport Identifier?
Customer Area Code? Gate Identifier? Notes etc. Waypoint Descriptor? As a minimum all waypoints referenced in sections If a waypoint is used in both the terminal and enroute areas, it should appear in both the terminal and enroute subsection file. In order to achieve consistent coding, State sources must clearly classify any multiple use of waypoints in the respective AIP sections.
Source: official government sources when available. If a procedure leg requires Rho-Theta information e. The content is controlled through requirements of the path terminators and coding rules contained in ARINC On SIDs, the speed limit will apply to all legs up to and including the terminator of the leg on which the limit is encoded from the beginning of the procedure. If a second speed limit is coded on a subsequent leg, the limit will be applied from that leg backwards to the previous terminator which contained a speed limit.
On STARs, the speed limit will be applied forward to the end of arrival unless a second speed limit is encoded. In order to achieve consistency all speed restrictions in RNAV procedures should be applied at specific waypoints.
Speed restrictions that are only applied during specific time periods are not coded in database. Some legacy systems can only process speed restrictions in combination with an altitude restriction. The conditional termination altitude can be coded in columns 90 through 95 of the SID record.
If a published take-off requires a turn greater than 15 degrees from the runway heading without an altitude specified before the turn For simplification and to avoid coding inconsistencies altitude restrictions should be applied at waypoints wherever possible.
Altitude restrictions in the terminal area that are only applied during specific time periods will not be included in the airborne database. This resolution reflects the airlines desire for the use of best available data. These industry requirements represent the resolutions that can be used by the various avionics systems. Many numerical values used in describing procedures are calculated values e.
The designer should be aware of all the navaids that an aircraft flying a certain procedure may use. This includes navaids located in nearby TMAs or in neighbouring countries. Special agreements with host countries may be required.
Track change points or turning points should be named and defined by co-ordinates in the AIP. ARINC establishes coding rules for identifiers and name fields when the government source does not provide identifiers or names in accordance with Annex Deviations create additional workload, cause misinterpretations and encourage errors. If required waypoints e. In certain cases, ATC is unaware that these fixes exist.
A serious safety problem can arise when a pilot needs to select a navaid from the database by identifier and the database has multiple navaids with the same identifier. The two elements Path and Terminator prescribing the way in which a path is to be flown and how the path is to be terminated.
Over the years and in particular with the introduction of RNAV new leg types were added. Each navigation element in the database is uniquely defined and stored in the master user file and can be accessed for any intended navigation purpose. Most aeronautical data originates from state agencies and is published in AIPs. RNAV airborne navigation systems are capable of using multiple sources of navigation data and operating within very closely defined limits.
RNAV systems are dependent on the availability of accurate latitude and longitude coordinates for lateral aircraft positioning. A designer should not overlay RNAV procedures on existing conventional procedures. Keep things simple. Complex solutions are difficult to validate and open to misinterpretation. Aircraft may use all navaids which are within the reception range. The Path and Terminator concept was developed to permit coding of terminal area procedures. Although not developed for design of flight procedures, sufficient background information about ARINC will enable procedure designers to perform their tasks so that misinterpretations and errors are significantly reduced.
ARINC 424 Shorthand System
It uses a self-clocking, self-synchronizing data bus protocol Tx and Rx are on separate ports. The physical connection wires are twisted pairs carrying balanced differential signaling. Data words are 32 bits in length and most messages consist of a single data word. Messages are transmitted at either A single wire pair is limited to one transmitter and no more than 20 receivers.
ARINC 424 Aeronautical Navigation Database