AMPHIBOLIC NATURE OF TCA CYCLE PDF

They provide not only energy but also precursors for biosynthesis of macromolecules that make up living systems. It provides electrons to the electron transport chain which is used to drive the production of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation. Intermediates in the citric acid cycle, such as oxaloacetate , are used to synthesize macromolecule constituents such as amino acids, e. The next few reactions, which are intramolecular rearrangements, produce isocitrate. Carbon dioxide is lost in each step and succinate a four-carbon compound is produced.

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They provide not only energy but also precursors for biosynthesis of macromolecules that make up living systems. It provides electrons to the electron transport chain which is used to drive the production of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation. Intermediates in the citric acid cycle, such as oxaloacetate , are used to synthesize macromolecule constituents such as amino acids, e.

The next few reactions, which are intramolecular rearrangements, produce isocitrate. Carbon dioxide is lost in each step and succinate a four-carbon compound is produced. Citric acid cycle has two modes that play two roles, the first being energy production produced by the oxidative mode, as the acetyl group of acetyl-coA is fully oxidized to CO2. This produces most of the ATP in the metabolism of aerobic heterotrophic metabolism, as this energy conversion in the membrane structure cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria and mitochondria in eukaryotes by oxidative phosphorylation by moving electron from donor NADH and FADH2 to the acceptor O2.

The second role is biosynthetic, as citric acid cycle regenerate oxaloacetate when cycle intermediates are removed for biosynthesis. This pathway provides monomers for many metabolic pathways by transforming glucose into the four-carbon sugar erythrose and the five-carbon sugar ribose ; these are important monomers in many metabolic pathways. Many of the reactants in this pathway are similar to those in glycolysis, and both occur in cytosol.

In meristematic cells, large amounts of DNA must be produced during the S-phase of a short cell cycle; this pathway is an extremely important part of the metabolism of these cells. In these cells, the pentose phosphate pathway is active and shifted[ clarification needed ] in favor of ribose production. In this process, glucosephosphate is oxidized through 6-phosphogluconate to pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, with the concomitant reduction of NADP.

By conventional glyceraldehydephosphate oxidation to pyruvate, one NAD is reduced and a net one[ clarification needed ] ATP is formed.

As many reactions in amphibolic pathways are freely reversible or can be bypassed, irreversible steps that facilitate their dual function are necessary. The pathway uses a different enzyme for each direction for the irreversible step in the pathway, allowing independent regulation of catabolism and anabolism. Due their inherent duality, amphibolic pathways represent the regulation modes of both anabolic by its negative feedback end product and catabolic by feedback by energy indicator sequences.

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